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Alberto Salazar -. September: Hispanic Heritage Month Alberto Salazar - A charismatic distance runner who set one world and six United States records during his career, Alberto Salazar has remained active in the sport as a coach with the Nike Oregon Project. Bracero Program. Centro Cultural de Washington County. Eva Castellanoz September: Hispanic Heritage Month Eva Castellanoz Eva Castellanoz—traditional artist, curandera healer , activist, and teacher—is a leading spokesperson for Oregon's Latino community. Latinos in Oregon essay.

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Based in Woodburn, … Read more Rudy Chapa Susan Castillo September: Hispanic Heritage Month Susan Castillo Susan Castillo was the first Latina elected to the Oregon State Legislature and the first to hold statewide elected office as superintendent of public instruction. She was also the last person to … Read more Valley Migrant League. As part of the federal … Read more As far as encyclopedias go, The Oregon Encyclopedia may be the greatest encyclopedia of all time. It has all the best entries, the best authors, and the best photographs—thousands of them.

with more than 175 years’ experience in the Humanities and Social Sciences.

The OE is part of one of the greatest research libraries in the West, which is located in the largest historical society in the state—the Oregon Historical Society. Nevertheless, due in part to the legacy of slavery , racism , and discrimination, African-Americans as a group remain at a pronounced economic, educational, and social disadvantage in many areas relative to Whites.

Persistent social, economic, and political issues for many African-Americans include inadequate health-care access and delivery; institutional racism and discrimination in housing, education , policing, criminal justice and employment; and crime , poverty and substance abuse. One of the most serious and long-standing issues within African-American communities is poverty. Poverty itself is a hardship as it is related to marital stress and dissolution, health problems, low educational attainment, deficits in psychological functioning, and crime.

Economically, Blacks have benefited from the advances made during the Civil Rights era. The racial disparity in poverty rates has narrowed.

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The Black middle class has grown substantially. In , 47 percent of African-Americans owned their homes. The poverty rate among African-Americans has dropped from However, African-Americans are still underrepresented in government and employment. In times of economic hardship for the nation, African-Americans suffer disproportionately from job loss and underemployment, with the Black underclass being hardest hit.

The phrase "last hired and first fired" is reflected in the Bureau of Labor Statistics unemployment figures. Nationwide, the September unemployment rate for Blacks was In , African-American workers had the second-highest median earnings of American minority groups after Asian-Americans, and African-Americans had the highest level of male-female income parity of all ethnic groups in the United States.

Also, among American minority groups, only Asian-Americans were more likely to hold white collar occupations management, professional, and related fields , and African-Americans were no more or less likely than Whites to work in the service industry. Although in the same year African-Americans were over-represented among the nation's poor, this was directly related to the disproportionate percentage of African-American families headed by single women; such families are collectively poorer, regardless of ethnicity.

The income gap between Black and White families is also significant. In , employed Blacks earned only 65 percent of the wages of Whites in comparable jobs, down from 82 percent in BET founder Bob Johnson, was also listed as a billionaire prior to an expensive divorce and has recently regained his fortune through a series of real-estate investments.

In African-American families, households and networks are smaller and less stable than in the past. One factor that has influenced these changes is single parenthood , which is a result of a number of complex and interrelated factors.

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Although rates of births to unwed mothers among both Blacks and Whites have risen since the s, the rate of such births among African-Americans is three times the rate of Whites. Although these trends have affected all families, African-American children are more likely than children of other races to live with a single mother and experience family disruptions. African-Americans historically have valued the institution of marriage and have favored the traditional two-parent family. In , 80 percent of African-American families were headed by two parents, even though many had started life in forced family separation under slavery.

One hundred years later, the percentage of married-couple, African-American families had dropped to 39 percent. Most of the decline in two-parent families has occurred since In , 57 percent of all African-American children in the United States lived in a single-parent family headed by a woman.

Out-of-wedlock births are on the rise. Census, In Florida , Like the general population, some segments of the African-American population more readily accept premarital sex and out of wedlock births. Under such conditions, economic considerations seem to have a greater influence on the decision to marry. Poor and unemployed African-American families have increased significantly over the past 20 years. Because parents usually fathers leave to form other families, because single parents must form independent households, and because of rapid technological changes, millions of unskilled laborers have fallen into the ranks of the poor and unemployed.

Persistently poor families defined as having family incomes below the poverty line during at least eight years in a year period in the United States tend to be headed by women, and of these families, 31 percent are headed by African-American women. An African-American child's high probability of growing up without a father is affected by factors uniquely associated with race. Among poor minority groups, children are unquestionable hurt by the combined effects of parental unemployment , low income, institutionalization, and death at an early age.

Their parents are more likely than any other group to suffer discrimination by race, gender, and class in work, housing, education , and criminal-justice practices. Current research indicates that while unemployment rates had no significant effect on the likelihood that single Black fathers ages would eventually marry the mothers of their child ren , young fathers ages who were employed were eight times more likely to marry the mothers of their child ren.

Care-giving grandparents are playing an increasing role in African-American families. About 12 percent of African-American children live in homes with their grandmothers, compared to six percent of Hispanic, and four percent of White children. Estimates indicate that in some cities with large, low-income African-American populations, between 30 percent and 70 percent of all children are living with grandparents.

African-American children residing with grandparents are more likely than Whites to have neither of their biological parents present 35 percent vs. Households including African-American grandchildren are typically headed by the grandmother only 62 percent , whereas 63 percent of households with White grandchildren are headed by both grandparents.

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By , gender had replaced race as the primary factor in life expectancy in the United States, with African-American females expected to live longer than White males born in that year. In the same year, the gap in life expectancy between American Whites The current life expectancy of African-Americans as a group is comparable to those of other groups who live in countries with a high human-development index.

African-Americans, who as a group are disproportionately poor and unemployed, are more often uninsured than non-Hispanic Whites or Asians. For a great many African-Americans, healthcare delivery is limited or nonexistent. And when they receive healthcare, they are more likely than others in the general population to receive substandard, even injurious medical care. African-Americans have a higher prevalence of some chronic health conditions, and a higher rate of out-of-wedlock births relative to the general population.


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Fifty-six percent of African-American children are born into families where the mother is not married to the biological father. In , single women headed 54 percent of African-American households. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It has been estimated that , adult and adolescent HIV infections were diagnosed during More than 51 percent of all cases reported occurred among Blacks, much higher than any other race.

Between the ages of , 62 percent were African-Americans. Both property crime and violent crime in the United States are concentrated in poor, urban areas.

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And because African-Americans are disproportionately poor and heavily concentrated in the nation's inner cities, Black communities have a notably higher crime rate than that of other communities. Although the incidence of violent crime is dropping among Blacks, more than one million African American men are currently in jail or prison. Professional street gangs and criminal networks are found among African-Americans in many American cities. Homicide remains the leading cause of death among Black men between the ages of 15 and Until recently, many local law enforcement and justice agencies had little diversity within their organizations.